Tuesday, March 17, 2020
Irans Influence on the Balance of Power in the Middle East Introduction The security of the Persian-Gulf region that is often influenced by the balance of power has been a problem to the security and stability of the region. The balance of power is based on the Ã¢â¬Å"zero-sumÃ¢â¬ basis game as well as the emergence of the rival actors in the region1.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on IranÃ¢â¬â¢s Influence on the Balance of Power in the Middle East specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This kind of system has resulted to wars in the region, tension, distrust, crises, and wars. With new developments in the region in terms of the political security especially in Iraq after the fall Saddam Hussein, the issue of the balance of power and the controller of the region has been a major problem. Iran and the US have been the major actors controlling the balance of power in the region. The issue of security in the region and maintaining stability in the region has been the caus e of IranÃ¢â¬â¢s intention to influence the balance of power in the region. The role played by Iran in the region is often as a result of US strategy in the region. In the international zone at the moment, countries such as the United States and Russia are making attempts to reduce the production of nuclear weapons in the world, because IranÃ¢â¬â¢s influence is due to its capability to produce nuclear weapons that has been a cause of concern not only to the Middle East but also the world. IranÃ¢â¬â¢s nuclear weapon program has changed the balance of power in the Middle East region and with time it is likely to affect other countryÃ¢â¬â¢s national security in the world. However, with the United States involved in other wars in the region, IranÃ¢â¬â¢s balance of power influence is likely to continue through production of nuclear weapons that would further Ã¢â¬Å"complicateÃ¢â¬ an already volatile region2. This paper will look at the likely scenarios in the future in respe ct to IranÃ¢â¬â¢s power influence in the Middle East through LAMP analysis that shall come up with future predictions based on the research questions that are Ã¢â¬Å"outlinedÃ¢â¬ below3. This paper is not however intended to look at whether Iran is likely to continue with its nuclear power production. However, it will consider the reactions of the main actors such as the US, Israel and Egypt in relation to IranÃ¢â¬â¢s balance of power influence.Advertising Looking for research paper on international relations? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Purpose of Study This paper aims to address the issue on Irans influence in the Middle East in the wake of the Arab unrest. It further discusses why Iran wanted to dominate the Middle East and its selfish ambitions and to the benefit of the region. Assumptions of the Study Some of the assumptions included: All the people involved in answering the questions would read prope rly and they were not medically unfit to prevent them from understanding the questions. Research Questions This paper aims at answering the question on why Iran has influenced the balance of power in the Middle East. It is important to know that the Iranian Ã¢â¬Å"subversionÃ¢â¬ has been the most feared attacks in the Middle East4. The ant-American activities led by Iran are of most concern to these states as they seek lasting peace in the region. Another question that this paper aim to answer is the potential reactions by countries such as Israel, the US, and Egypt to Irans Ã¢â¬Å"attainmentÃ¢â¬ of nuclear power weapons5. Literature Review Since the Iranian Revolution of 1979, the country has a long withstanding history and the current debates that have dominated most books and the media with regard to IranÃ¢â¬â¢s balance of power influence in the Middle East. Nevertheless, IranÃ¢â¬â¢s history is much Ã¢â¬Å"complicatedÃ¢â¬ disregard the recent developments and her inf luence in the region. Much of its history, shows that the country has been a key player in the regionÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic policies and its location has given the country an added advantage in Ã¢â¬Å"bridging the gapÃ¢â¬ between the East Asian countries and the Middle Eastern region6. Iran had become a major trading centre for both the Eastern and the Western countries by 1935, even though this caused conflicts with other countries, Iran remained independent in its affairs at this time. However, during the period of 1700Ã¢â¬â¢s Turkey started to cover some sections of Persia as Iran was formerly known while Britain too came later and started to influence her power in Iran?Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on IranÃ¢â¬â¢s Influence on the Balance of Power in the Middle East specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Britain had managed to control IranÃ¢â¬â¢s affairs however this was for a short time since by late 19 60Ã¢â¬â¢s Iran had changed socially, culturally and politically with the help of the outside countries. However, Iran managed to control the Middle East with the emergence of the new Emperor after the World War I. During the reign of Rezah Shah Iran changed militarily becoming a major force in the Middle East. Iran never managed to become a republic because of strong opposition from the religious leaders. With this opposition, however, developments and changes in areas such as the reformation of the judicial system, building of infrastructure like the trans-Iranian Railway, and improving the education system7. Whichever way the opposition from religious leaders would change the course of IranÃ¢â¬â¢s emergence in becoming a major force in the Middle East and becoming a republican that would change the religious doctrines to approach life in a more secular way. The continued trend to modernize Iran, and the diplomatic and economic relationship with the other Middle East countries continued with future leaders who arose to power. After 1980, the nuclear weapon production issue by Iran started to become a major problem in the international community, this resulted poor relations between Iran and the Western countries, and this poor relations hold up until now. It is believed that energy, security and competition for the resources in the region are some of the main reasons for IranÃ¢â¬â¢s major force in the region. The Middle East countries can therefore allow Iran to take control of most of the regionÃ¢â¬â¢s affairs and avoid competition from the other countries of the world. This is well taken by countries such as the US who have adopted the same strategies of Ã¢â¬Å"containmentÃ¢â¬ and implementation in the region8. Theoretical Framework Most of the information found in literature gives the required information on the historical ties and tensions between the various Middle East counties and how such relationships are likely to affect the balance of po wer in the region. This research is to show how IranÃ¢â¬â¢s nuclear power program has affected the balance of power in the region.Advertising Looking for research paper on international relations? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, other research show that the wars and tensions in the region are as a result of power struggles in the region and the control of energy resources.. Clearly, Iran depends on the energy resources to implement the nuclear program and as leverage over those who are against their nuclear program. Past research do not look in depth at the various reactions to IranÃ¢â¬â¢s balance of power influence in the region. Hypothesis The major hypothesis in this study is that the actions of other world states and those in the Middle East will heavily depend on the US stand with regard to IranÃ¢â¬â¢s power influence in the Middle East. This is because the US is the superpower and thus likely to influence other countries in their decisions. This implies that the major actors such as Israel and Egypt will look at the US as a diplomatic, economic and military guide to base their reactions on in regard to IranÃ¢â¬â¢s activities9. Research Design and Methods It can be said that there is no region in the world affected by conflicts more than the Middle East. This problem in the region is further complicated by Irans nuclear weapon possession and how its neighbors are likely to perceive this if Iran is to be confirmed as the ninth nuclear state. This research paper relies on predictions on this kind of reactions by these countries towards Irans balance of power influence and this method is the Ã¢â¬Å"Lockwood Analytical Method for PredictionÃ¢â¬ - LAMP method. However, current debates are concerned about stopping Iran from producing nuclear weapons; however other research papers have not looked in depth about the research questions10. However, my research through LAMP method of analysis will account for other things that are Ã¢â¬Å"overlookedÃ¢â¬ in Irans influence on the balance of power in the region that would give a decision maker the chance to make a more accurate assessment of the situation in the region11. The use of LAMP method for predicting the actions of the different states relative to Irans power influence in the region shall minimize biases, analytic Ã¢â¬Å"fallaciesÃ¢â¬ and enable this research to accomplish its purpose that is debated in most of the scholarly books. None of the research books and other journals obtained in this topic used systematic analytic techniques such as LAMP, Delphi method, or the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). This method gives a more accurate prediction of events. Limitations of the research methods and Analysis The LAMP method does not often look on the alternatives of the future events that make the predictions by this method one-sided. Therefore this method is likely to make this research method loom as if it is not in depth however the results presented show the real picture of the situation in the Middle East. Findings From this research, clearly Iran has a great influence in the Middle East countries. It uses strategies such as diplomatic power, information, military, and economic factors as Ã¢â¬Å"leversÃ¢â¬ to exert their influence in the Middle East countries12. However, it was discovered that not all the elements used by Iran to exert her influence in the Middle East countries are a negative13. Clearly, the methods used by Iran to influence her balance of power in these countries are Ã¢â¬Å"two-facedÃ¢â¬ 14. One of the methods is the decision by the Iranian government to offer moral support to these countries while targeting their influence in the governments of these countries, and encouraging free elections for the Middle East countries although Ã¢â¬Å"manipulatingÃ¢â¬ the election results in favor of their mission15. However, Irans diplomatic and political influence is the most outstanding. This research shows that Iran gives 85 percent support to the Middle East countrys parties and the politicians. The government of Iran develops political relationships with the Middle East political parties with an aim of providing them financial support. Irans supp ort for these political parties especially in Iraq helps the U.S. and Iraqs Ã¢â¬Å"effortsÃ¢â¬ of building democracy in the country16. However, the intention of Iran is to ensure that the political parties that rule such countries as Iraq are those that are friendly to the Iranian government. The information, economic and military influence by Iran over the Middle East countries is in line with the countrys mission of dominating the region in terms of her political influence. Irans economic influence has helped to stabilize trade in the region, promote transportation and economic development. However, 80 percent of these agreements are in favor of Iran and the country benefits more in the trade agreements because of the prices of commodities. The findings show that Iran has the power over the prices of goods and services and the goods involved in trade are cheaper in Iran than in the other Middle East countries. These differences in price make it difficult for goods and services of the other Middle East countries to compete with those of Iran. Irans efforts to increase her influence in the Middle East Countries have enabled it to increase her competition with the US. Clearly after the Invasion of Israel in Lebanon in 1982, and after the 2006 Israel-Hezbollah war, the US has struggled to be in line with Irans influence in the region. The Islamic Republic has come up with strong relations with Syria and other non-state in the region. Iran however, has been active in her military influence especially in exploiting the Arab- Israel that has made it impossible for peace in the Arab-Israel countries. Nevertheless, the US has to deal with the Arab Ã¢â¬Å"hostilityÃ¢â¬ to realize her strategic relations with Israel17. However, both Iran and the US face difficulties in dealing with Egypt, Syria, and other Arab countries. Iran and the US have both been competing in the influence of power in the Middle East. The US wants to bring stability in the region and reforma tions in democracy that has been affected as a result of the oil in the region. However, Iran wants to Ã¢â¬Å"spreadÃ¢â¬ its religion of Islam and therefore her ideologies in Islam are the main concern for Iran18. Iran moreover, wants to promote Ã¢â¬Å"ShiaÃ¢â¬ in the region and provide assistance for the terrorist hit countries19. The competition for control of the Middle East has been for long between the US and Iran. The research showed that USs main intention after taking Saddam Hussein from power was to dominate the region, remove the Ã¢â¬Å"counterinsurgencyÃ¢â¬ groups and liberate the countries of the region. However, Iran supports some of the insurgent groups but the intention of Iran is to support the region in building the economy, and infrastructure. Changes in the Middle East regarding the uprisings and other political changes have affected the US policy in the region. Most of the years, the US policies have endured the region but the rise of the Ã¢â¬Å"Arab Spr ingÃ¢â¬ would change such activities by US in the region. The US policy in the region is shifting with such unrests in the region20. This research shows that even before the start of these changes, there was a problem in balancing the priorities in the Middle East. The priority of establishing stability in the region and that of ensuring that the US is protected through dealing with the terrorists and Ã¢â¬Å"counter-proliferationÃ¢â¬ enabled the rise of Iran as an influencing power in the Middle East that ensured that the US would not invade the Middle East region with the intention of bringing democracy and protecting human rights while it had her own selfish intentions21. Many believe that such cooperation of the Middle East countries was against the US military invasion in the region. However, the provision of assistance in terms of military by the US to its allies in the region to control Ã¢â¬Å"interstateÃ¢â¬ conflicts was seen further as a problem with the US allies i n the region, and the relationship of the regions countries with each other. For example, both Israel and Saudi Arabia might see the US as a friend to them while taking Iran as a major threat in the region. The region has long been characterized as by wars and interstate conflicts22. The Arab unrest has resulted in several changes in the region. The US policies are becoming a problem with Irans influence in the region and as a result of the unrest, and conflicts in the Middle East. There have been changes in the region such as: Public Opinions Power The public have done away with dictators in the region during the general elections and refuted the claim that the outside countries understand the Arab world better than them and they can help in dealing with the tensions in the region. The assumption that the US can now deal with the elite group in the region in the wake of such conflicts in the region has changed. However, it is not clear from this research the types of governments th at would be formed in those states that still undergoing changes as a result of the wars. The governments are not considering the public opinion and the groups that are seeking to bring changes in these countries. Even though the Arab uprisings do not believe that their main aim is the US policies in the region, writers believe that most of the Arab world citizens argue that their leaders have looked on their interests in favor of the US and other outside powers to get military assistance, and benefit in terms of trade. Their need to be more research to know how the upcoming leaders are dealing with the external policies more so regarding the Arab-Israel peace process. Islamist Support and Success This research found out that most of the public believe that the incorporation of Islam leaders in government may be the way forward for the regions long standing unrests. They believe that such religious leaders may help in seeing sympathy with the previously targeted people for Ã¢â¬Å"re pressionÃ¢â¬ , there would be little competition from other parties, and a belief that the Islam parties are less corrupt because of their religion. Strategic Implications Clearly the US previously relied on her friends in the Arab region in doing away with forces such as Al Qaeda, Hama, Hezbollah, and other Islamic terrorist groups and the Iran and Syrian government during the cold war. However, the emergency of Iran in the region has affected US policy in the region and therefore the US does not have any influence in the region any longer. The Al-Qaeda groups have Ã¢â¬Å"embracedÃ¢â¬ the issue of change as the only important factor to do away with the opposition in the Middle East and to the corrupt governments23. The Arab unrest has resulted in the emergency of Iran as the Ã¢â¬Å"winnersÃ¢â¬ as most of the US allies came under threat from the regions countries. He continues to assert that Irans influence is still growing as there is still a problem with the violence in Sy ria. This situation prompted Iran to protect her Ã¢â¬Å"regimeÃ¢â¬ against such uprising24. The Hamas have put themselves away from the Syrian government while the Hezbollah supported it. This forced Iran to come up with ways to protect itself as the war in Syria would have had many consequences on Iran for its allies in Lebanon and Palestine. Israels Concerns and Peace Negotiations The government of Israel believed that the Arab unrest was a threat to Israels security as it would replace the allies of the country with Islamist governments that would be a problem to Israel. Therefore Irans influence in the region would be a more threat to Israel. Analysis The Iranian nuclear weapon program has been the issue in most of the world state over the security concern. However, most of the published reports in journals, and books look at Irans influence on the balance of power in the region rather than looking at the reactions of the various countries of the region such as Israel, and Eg ypt. Therefore this predictive study looks at Israel, Egypt, and the US while looking at Irans influence of power in the region. These three countries were selected in this research because each of them brings a specific point regarding the research questions. These three countries show the availability of enemies to Iran for example Israel, Egypt being a regional rival, and the US being the worlds superpower that is looking at Iran with some degree of Ã¢â¬Å"suspicionÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"anxietyÃ¢â¬ 25. Each of the three countries has different perspectives regarding the research questions. The current debates and the content of books as researched do not put much emphasis on the reactions of the different countries to Irans balance of power influence in the region. However, history gives a more approach to the relationship between the US and Iran, Israel and Iran, or Egypt and Iran but not much information on the reactions of the three countries to Irans power influence in the reg ion. Most of the scholarly books tend to concentrate on the possibility actions of Egypt before Iran becomes a nuclear power threat, and what methods it will use as preventive measures against such nuclear weapons. However, most literature books and journals show that Iran would become a nuclear power and influence the decisions in the Middle East with time and this situation would be more complicated based on the reactions of the three countries and those of the Middle East regarding Irans influence in the region. The weakness of the present books and journals however do not accept the possibility of a major fall out in the world and security threat should Iran continue with her nuclear production. There are various reactions from the three countries relative to Irans influence of power in the region and the course of action has been influenced by the US and the relationship of the given country among the various Middle East countries. Through the LAMP method of analysis, Israel is likely to continue with its Ã¢â¬Å"status quoÃ¢â¬ to have its own nuclear weapons while depending on the US to put more pressure on Irans Ã¢â¬Å"diplomatic and economicÃ¢â¬ situations. Irans balance of power influence is likely to force countries such as Israel to declare them as nuclear weapon producers and pursue an Ã¢â¬Å"open deterrenceÃ¢â¬ (Friedman 2011)26. This is likely to be as a blocking stone to Irans balance of power influence. Discussions Iran was one of the most powerful states both militarily and technologically when it was a Western ally country. However, much of its powers dropped drastically after the withdrawal of the Western advisor and the imposition of arms Ã¢â¬Å"embargoÃ¢â¬ by the US27. This made the country lose the Iran-Iraq war and its forces were weak, and Iran was unable to recover militarily after the war. Her influence in the Middle East is a strategy to gain her lost powers in the region and the country is looking for strategies to make n uclear weapons and this has enabled it to build one of the strongest forces in the Gulf. He further believes that Iran uses the membership of OPEC and energy resources as a source of Ã¢â¬Å"leverageÃ¢â¬ to influence its powers in the region28. Security of the Middle East countries has been deteriorating and therefore the influence of Iran in the region has a major role to play. Ã¢â¬Å"InsurgentÃ¢â¬ military in countries such as Iraq has been a threat to the development of that country. The activities of this militia have caused instability and violence in Iraq in the past. Even though the rise of Irans influence in the Middle East countries has worked in the reduction of such forces in Iraq, they still have the powers to cause insecurity in the country and Ã¢â¬Å"destabilizeÃ¢â¬ Iraq29. The violence caused by this insurgent militia in Iraq had cause civil war in Iraq in 2006. Therefore, the influence of Iran on Iraq is to build good working relations with an intention of pr omoting good security in Iraq. This is the interest of Iran in the pursuit of her influence in the region. However, the Persian-Arabs cultural differences have been a problem to Irans mission of its influence. The influence of Iran on Iraq limitations as the more country becomes stable economically, the less it is likely that the country will have power influence in Iraq. Iran is an uncertain country in her decision making that makes it difficult to know the true objectives of her influence in the region. Moreover, it important to believe that Iran has her own intentions regarding its policies towards her balance of power influence in the region. A few writers may support the view that Irans regime in the region may Ã¢â¬Å"cling towards one principle objectiveÃ¢â¬ 30. However, this research proofed that Irans goals for the balance of power influence in the region can be represented in a hierarchy form in the order of highest to lowest. According to Franssen 2010, if Iran achieves her goals ranked as the highest priority then it will focus its attention on achieving the next highest set of priorities. This has greatly contributed to the shift of power in the Middle East especially seeing Iran increase her dominance in the region. However, Irans influence in the region is affected by U.S. policy towards the region and some changes in Iran policy itself. The behavior of Iran and its influence in the Middle East has been eased by the possibility of the US using the attack on Iraq to invade Iran. I believed that the main intention for the US attack on Iraq was to get into Iran. Nevertheless, the fear of the emergence of strong and unified forces against Iran in the region would arise in effect to Saddams fall from power. This would act to destabilize Iran and the rise of civil wars in the region would be harmful for Iran. Therefore taking control over the region, would act as a defense mechanism and the fear drove this factor. Answering the Research Questions Why Iran has influenced the Balance of Power in the Middle East Iran has used several strategies to effect her power influence in the Middle East. The use of diplomacy and political engagement especially in Iraq after the fall of Saddam Hussein is worth noticing. This influence in Iraq was based on several factors. The involvement in the political and economic relations of Iraq was to ensure that Shiite dominated the Iraq power. This is because Iran wanted her Islamic religion to continue being in power as evidenced by their support of the Shiite whom shared the same religious background. Research shows that 60percent of Iraqs population consists of the Shiite. This group was oppressed during Saddams reign. Through this influence Iran would benefit through their military cooperation, energy and transportation sectors. During the Gulf war, most of the US soldiers did not help the Iraq Shia group, who wanted to overthrow Saddams government. The Iranian influences through the media has he lped to broadcast messages about the intention of the U.S. Government in the Middle East and helping to control US entry into the region. Reactions of major Actors The reactions of the major actors such as Israel, and Egypt to IranÃ¢â¬â¢s influence in the Middle East are based on the influence of the US which is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s superpower. Conclusion The emergence of the Islamist activities and political parties in several countries such as Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya have raised a lot of concern about the power of the US state in partnership with the Islam-influenced governments. Protests in the Middle East have been driven by Ã¢â¬Å"legitimate grievancesÃ¢â¬ 31. The LAMP method of analysis enables the policy makers and the researcher to have a look on the possibility of any security threat in the world soon. By looking at the various reactions of Israel, Egypt and the US relative to Irans balance of power influence in the region, the method gives a clear picture of the Middle East situation. This research nevertheless adds to the already hot debates surrounding the Middle East in an analytical manner. This research, hopes that future research on this topic shall expound, remove some assumptions that are present in the scholarly articles and journals, and give an update on the latest developments regarding Irans influence in the Middle East. The situation of Iran is a security threat not only to the Middle East countries but also to the world. It is time for the world to find a solution to Irans nuclear balance of power influence. However, the influence of balance of power by Iran remains the US top foreign policy priority and among the G-20 states. This situation is likely to get worse should no action be taken in the most efficient manner. Bibliography Boucek, Christopher and Karim Sadjadpour. Rivals- Iran vs. Saudi Arabia. Sada, (Chicago: University of Chicago, 2011, p. 66-124). Link: http: Edelman, Eric et al. The dangers of a nuclear Iran: The limit s of containment. Foreign Affairs (Chicago: University of Chicago), 66-81. Etzioni Amitai. Ã¢â¬Å"Shifting Sands.Ã¢â¬ The Journal of International Security Affairs. (Chicago: University of Chicago, 2011) Web. Fransen, Herman. ABU DHABI-Abu Dhabi: oil and beyond. The Middle East Journal 63, 4 (2009): 668-669. Friedman, George. Ã¢â¬Å"Syria, Iran and the Balance of Power in the Middle East.Ã¢â¬ Real Clear World, (2011) Web. Garrison, Jean and Ahad Abdurahmonov. Ã¢â¬Å"Explaining the Central Asian energy game: Complex interdependence and how small states influence their big neighbors.Ã¢â¬ Asian Perspective 35 (July-September 2011): 381-405. Kvale, Steinar. Interviews: An introduction to qualitative research interviewing. Thousand Oaks California: Sage Publications (1996). Malley, Robert and Harling, Peter. Beyond moderates and militants. Foreign Affairs 89, 5 (2010): 18-29. Maloney, Suzanne. 2011. Ã¢â¬Å"Iran.Ã¢â¬ In The Arab Awakening: America and the Transformation of the Middle East, ed. Kenneth M Pollack, 258-267. New York: Brookings Institution Press. Muller, Philipp. 2011. Ã¢â¬Å"Driving Forces behind Alliance Building in the Middle East.Ã¢â¬ BIPS 01: 1-14. Nasri, Vali and Takeyh, Ray. The Costs of Containing Iran; Washingtons Misguided New Middle East Policy. Foreign Affairs 87, 1 (2008): 85-94. Oktav, Zeynep. The gulf states and Iran: a Turkish perspective. Middle East Policy 18, 2 (2011): 136-147. Pilisuk, Marc. Rountree Jeniffer and Pellegrini Gianina. Playing the imperial game: the mindset behind the attack on Iraq. Peace Research 40, 2 (2008): 39-59,112. Roshandel,Jalil and Nathan Chapman.2011. Iran, Israel, and the United States: Regime Security vs. Political Legitimacy. New York: ABC-CLIO. Slackman, Michael. 2011. Ã¢â¬Å"Arab Unrest Propels Iran as Saudi Influence Declines.Ã¢â¬ The New York Times,p. 123-8. Web. Ulrichsen, Kristian. Internal and external security in the Arab Gulf States. Middle East Policy 16, 2 (2009): 39-58. Footn otes 1. Etzioni Amitai. Ã¢â¬Å"Shifting Sands.Ã¢â¬ The Journal of International Security Affairs. (Chicago: University of Chicago, 2011) 2.. Boucek, Christopher and Karim Sadjadpour. Rivals- Iran vs. Saudi Arabia. Sada,(Chicago: University of Chicago, 2011) 3. Ibid., p. 110 4. Ulrichsen, Kristian. Internal and external security in the Arab Gulf States. Middle East Policy 16, 2 (2009): 39-58. 5.Ibid., p. 40 6. Oktav, Zeynep. The gulf states and Iran: a Turkish perspective. Middle East Policy 18, 2 (2011): 136-147. 7.Ibid., p.138 8. Maloney, Suzanne. 2011. Ã¢â¬Å"Iran.Ã¢â¬ In The Arab Awakening: America and the Transformation of the Middle East, ed. Kenneth M Pollack, 258-267. New York: Brookings Institution Press. 9. Ulrichsen, Kristian. Internal and external security in the Arab Gulf States. Middle East Policy 16, 2 (2009): 39-58. 10. Ulrichsen, Kristian. Internal and external security in the Arab Gulf States. Middle East Policy 16, 2 (2009): 39-58. 11. Edelman, Eric. The dang ers of a nuclear Iran: The limits of containment. Foreign Affairs (Chicago: University of Chicago), 66-81. 12 Ibid., p. 81 13.Ibid., p.69 14. Ibid., p.58 15.Ibid., p. 70 16.Ibid., p. 80 17. Kvale, Steinar. Interviews: An introduction to qualitative research interviewing. Thousand Oaks California: Sage Publications (1996). 18. Ulrichsen, Kristian. Internal and external security in the Arab Gulf States. Middle East Policy 16, 2 (2009): 39-58. 19.Ibid., p.58 20. Nasri, Vali and Takeyh, Ray. The Costs of Containing Iran; Washingtons Misguided New Middle East Policy. Foreign Affairs 87, 1 (2008): 85-94. 21.Ibid., p. 86 22.Ibid., p. 90 23. Maloney, Suzanne. 2011. Ã¢â¬Å"Iran.Ã¢â¬ In The Arab Awakening: America and the Transformation of the Middle East, ed. Kenneth M Pollack, 258-267. New York: Brookings Institution Press. 24.Ibid., p. 259 25. Garrison, Jean and Ahad Abdurahmonov. Ã¢â¬Å"Explaining the Central Asian energy game: Complex interdependence and how small states influence the ir big neighbors.Ã¢â¬ Asian Perspective 35 (July-September 2011): 381-405. 26. Fransen, Herman. ABU DHABI-Abu Dhabi: oil and beyond. The Middle East Journal 63, 4 (2009): 668-669 27.Ibid., p. 668 28.Ibid., p. 669 29.Ibid., p. 668 30. Roshandel,Jalil and Nathan Chapman.2011. Iran, Israel, and the United States: Regime Security Vs. Political Legitimacy. New York: ABC-CLIO. 31. Kvale, Steinar. Interviews: An introduction to qualitative research interviewing. Thousand Oaks California: Sage Publications (1996).
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Selling Your Novel Without an Agent Many authors mistakenly believe you must have a literary agent to sell your novel to a publisher Ã¢â¬â especially one of the big New York publishers. While itÃ¢â¬â¢s true that the right agent can help you find a publisher and negotiate a contract, itÃ¢â¬â¢s also possible to have a flourishing career without an agent. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re interested in selling your novel without an agent, here are some tips and guidelines to help you: 1.Ã Ã Ã Research Your Market Ã¢â¬â While many people rely on their agent to match them up with the right publisher, my experience has been that I knew as much about my chosen market as most of the agents I talked to. You, too, can become an expert in your genre. Read editor and agent blogs. Visit publisher websites. Follow publishers and agents on Twitter. Read publications devoted to your genre. Read the dedications and acknowledgments in your favorite books in your genre and note the names of editors Ã¢â¬â these are the pros you want to work with. 2.Ã Ã Ã Perfect Your Pitch Ã¢â¬â Your manuscript or proposal is a product youÃ¢â¬â¢re trying to sell to a publisher, so polish your one-to-two sentence pitch. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll use this pitch in query letters and as an Ã¢â¬Å"elevator pitchÃ¢â¬ when you meet editors at conferences. Your pitch should tell what your book is about, but it should also Ã¢â¬Å"sellÃ¢â¬ the project, making it sound intriguing and marketable. For instance, my pitch for my November release, The View From Here, was Ã¢â¬Å"Northern Exposure in the Rocky Mountains.Ã¢â¬ This immediately conjured up the idea of a small, rugged town filled with quirky characters. 3.Ã Ã Ã Know Publisher Policies Ã¢â¬â Though some publishers say theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll take only agented manuscripts, plenty of publishers are still open to unagented submissions. Smaller presses such as Bell Bridge Books are open to unagented authors, as are most digital publishers and many larger publishers, including Kensington Books,Ã St. MartinÃ¢â¬â¢s Press, Berkley Books, Harlequin Books and many others. Read the publisherÃ¢â¬â¢s guidelines on their web sites and in market guides, but go a step further. Make a phone call and ask if theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll accept a query from an unagented author. The worst that can happen is theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll say no. And many will say yes. 4.Ã Ã Ã Attend Conferences Ã¢â¬â Even publishers with policies against unagented material willÃ send editors to conferences to take pitches. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re targeting a particular publisher and an editor youÃ¢â¬â¢d like to work with is attending, the price of the conference fee could be a good investment in your career. Pitch your project to the editor and they may request you send them the manuscript. I sold The View From Here to Kensington 5.Ã Ã Ã Enter Contests Ã¢â¬â Contests are another way to get your work in front of editors even if you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have an agent. Most contests will list the names of final judges. Select contests with judges who are editors you want to work with. (YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll know this because youÃ¢â¬â¢ve been doingÃ your research Ã¢â¬â see #1). 6.Ã Ã Ã Find a Literary Attorney Ã¢â¬â Once youÃ¢â¬â¢ve successfully sold your novel, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need to hire a literary attorney to review the contract for you. Be sure you get a literary attorney, and not just any lawyer. You want someone familiar with the contract terms used in publishing. You can find a literary attorney through a Google search or from referrals from writerÃ¢â¬â¢s organizations. Expect to pay several hundred dollars for the contract review, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s a one-time fee and well worth the money.
Friday, February 14, 2020
Stress Management Programs - Essay Example Stress in the workplace can be managed through improved personnel selection and job placement. According to Robbins (1993), people with little or an external locus control tend to be more stress prone. Therefore, it is imperative for the management to ensure that a person has experience or is capable of coping with the demands of the job before he is appointed to a certain position in the organization. In some cases, a person may have experience but incapable of coping with the demands of the job. This aspect is very important in as far as stress management is concerned. The other important strategy that can be implemented by the management is related to goal setting. The use of goals to different individuals helps to reduce stress and they can also lead to motivation of the employees. It is also important for the management to provide goal feedback to the employees since this helps to reduce uncertainties among the workers. Another stress management program that can be implemented is related to job redesign. According to Robbins (1993), job redesigning helps the employees to be more responsible, it gives them more autonomy and it also gives them more control of their work which reduces stress since they are no longer dependent on others. A person who has control over his job is motivated and is likely to be stress free. The other dimension that can be implemented by management to address the issue of stress is related to participative decision making. By virtue of giving the employees a voice to contribute towards the decision making process, the management is in a position of increasing employee control of their work which helps to reduce stress. It is important that the managers should increase employee participation in the decision making process of the company so as to be in a position to minimize chances of stress related problems in the company. The other
Saturday, February 1, 2020
HCS 440 Question 1 - Assignment Example Time equates money that is, as a result, of trade and its interactions. Culture affects the quality in health care, which is a paramount measure. The impact of trade and choice reveals itself here as these two variables bring health in an Ã¢â¬Ëequilibrium state. Quality exchange is majorly placed on the capacity of group basis rather than individual basis hence delivery of proper service to prolong ones life in terms of good surgery, well-trained doctors, and medication. The factor of research, technology, and innovation has greatly affected the overhead cost of health care. With research going on various diseases and drugs, it is expected that the taxpayerÃ¢â¬â¢s money will play a huge part in this activity. About $2trilion is spent every year on health care system in the research of new drugs and treatment procedures. Without this great heavy input by the government, the otherwise cost incurred in not investing in healthcare system would be of a greater
Friday, January 24, 2020
The United States (US) Navy has been in many battles over the years, made many improvements to their ships, and has allowed women to join the force; this is why the Navy is one of the largest branches of the military today. The Navy is a brand of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s armed forces that includes warships and support ships, their crews, land bases, and many personnel. Also, many navies include an air force; some navies even have combat forces known as marines. The marines are trained to fight in the air and on land; they are some of the toughest people in the military. Ã¢â¬Å"On October 13, 1775, the United States Navy was formed.Ã¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"WorldbookÃ¢â¬ 2). There was a meeting and the Continental Congress voted for the Navy to be approved. This was to help out at sea where at the time British were the major force. The Navy was initially made to cut off trades and munitions between Britain and other countries. This was an attempt to help the Americans in the war. The smaller navies of the world usually consist of warships, smaller boats like patrol boats, missile boats, and minesweepers. The main objective fo...
Thursday, January 16, 2020
* On television, music, and most websites, they inform the user about the contents of their website, song, or show; but others (like YouTube) put on age restrictions on them. * IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure most of you have had to go through these at some point in your life and have gotten upset when you canÃ¢â¬â¢t hear the whole song or watch the whole movie. * IÃ¢â¬â¢d like to explain to you all how Media Censorship is in direct violation of the First Amendment and how it can make it harder for kids to learn about certain aspects of life. * The First Amendment is one of our most important Amendments because it allows us, the citizens of the United States, to speak our minds about anything without legal government penalty. * Freedom of speech is no longer considered important to the government. People should be able to express themselves, whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s through music, movies, or anything, but instead they have to bleep the cuss for their song to go on the radio and block the inappropriate parts on a movie which can possibly cause a loss in entertainment or power in the message * The morals of people that have been hidden information from and the morals of the people who havenÃ¢â¬â¢t been hidden from are completely different. If certain things are hidden from people, then that gives people a curiosity in the subject and may cause people the use of illegal actions to obtain it. * Education isnÃ¢â¬â¢t something for kids need to be censored from. * People are curious about life and feel they need to learn more about it, if everything was censored then this can cause parents to be in uncomfortable situations and cause kids to ask more questions. * The government shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to tell people what they can and canÃ¢â¬â¢t watch or listen to; this should be up to the person or the parents of that particular person. * The FCC (Federal Communications Commission) monitors every radio station, Television broadcast, and music broadcast to make sure that nothing inappropriate is said on the broadcast that they think may ruin the mind of the listeners. * Most music is censored while there are few artists that refuse to censor their music, and nearly all movies are also censored. * The First Amendment states that you have a freedom of speech and the FCC shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be able to take that away. People can be better educated on topics if nothing is censored. * The sound of music and the graphics of movies are some things you all would most likely want to keep. * In conclusion, The media should not be censored and should not be allowed to be censored.
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
Adult Immunizations and Vaccines Older adults aged 65 and older are at an increased risk of acquiring diseases. Herpes zoster (shingles) and pneumonia are very common among the illnesses that older adults can develop. Research exists which validates the fact that vaccinations against pneumonia and shingles lessen the impact and the occurrence of these diseases. Due to the fact that many individuals in this age group are inflexible, it can be difficult to help them understand the importance of immunizations. Nurses and health care workers are to encourage patients to get vaccinated in order to decrease the incidence of these illnesses, which often times leads to morbidity and mortality. The research provided is aimed at showing a negative correlation between the number of individuals vaccinated and the event these diseases. Summary of Article 1 The scholarly journal article, Ã¢â¬Å"Shingles vaccination: background and advice for community nursesÃ¢â¬ written by Edward Pursell, senior lecturer at KingÃ¢â¬â¢s College London is aimed at educating nurses about the shingles vaccine. The author accomplishes this by first explaining the pathophysiology of shingles, the rate of occurrence, then goes into the discussion of vaccinations available which are aimed at reducing the occurrence of shingles primarily in the older adult population (age 65 +). The author is from the UK, therefore some components may differ from the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ population but the points statedShow MoreRelatedThe Importance Of Global Health Issues1688 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesand therefore require international cooperation for prevention, planning and preparedness, disaster response, and provision of healthcare. 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This makes it so our body can successfully, or lessen the effectsRead MoreThe Human Services At The Medical Model Of Service Delivery Essay1195 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCHHC has been a part of the Flatbush neighborhood of Brooklyn since 1964. It is located at 1167 Nostrand Avenue Brooklyn, NY 11225. This center provides a wide variety of different services such as Prenatal Care, Immunization, Sexual Health Services, Pediatrics, Family Planning Services, Adult Medicine, Gynecology, Adolescent Medicine and many more. The impact it has on young adolescents is quite phenomenal and life changing. 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There are differing levels of disease ranging from a general feeling of dissatisfaction with life to when we feel sick enough to seek professional advice.Ã¢â¬â¢ If an individual has a condition as a result of their signs and symptoms then this can be given a name. There are many different types of diseases all of which can be physical, intellectual, emotional and even social (PIES). Some scientists and health professionals argue that by having overall health, you mustRead MoreCommunity Health And Population Focused Nursing Practicum Jean Sherrill Wgu Essay6366 Words Ã |Ã 26 Pages2013 with them consisting of 89.3%, African Americans was 7.2%, American Indian and Alaskan was 0.2%, Asians was 0.2%, Hawaiian Pacific natives was 0.1% and Hispanic/Latino was 2.1% Top of Form Community Health and Population-Focused Nursing Practicum Jean Sherrill WGU Description of Community Cape Girardeau County is in the southeastern part of Missouri. The county has 3 cities, 7 villages, and 9 unincorporated areas. The county has 578.54 square miles (Cape Girardeau County Public HealthRead MoreMedical Test with Answers Essay example16933 Words Ã |Ã 68 PagesÃ¯ » ¿HESI RN Practice Test - Comprehensive Test (125 Questions) A male client who lives in an area endemic with Lyme disease asks the nurse what to do if he thinks he may have been exposed. Which response should the nurse provide? A. Cover the ticks with oil to suffocate and kill them to prevent transmission. B. Look for early signs of a lesion that increases in size with a red border, clear center. Correct C. See a healthcare provider if nausea, vomiting, and joint pain occur after a tick bite. IncorrectRead MoreCivil Rights4442 Words Ã |Ã 18 Pagesdiscrimination. Of all these laws, ADA extends the most far-reaching protections for families of children with chronic viral hepatitis. 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